Wednesday, May 20, 2020
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Proposal one suggests that the company buys one hundred new refrigerated trucks, half in 2001 and the other half in 2002. The company could then sell 60 old trucks over the course of two years for a total of EUR4.05 million. The trucks would be more fuel- efficient and less maintenance. This proposal would make deliveries more frequent, make scheduling more flexible, and support further expansion in the future. Proposal two suggests that a new plant be built that would take the burden off other plants that had to make shipments because demand was higher and it would decrease shipment costs. The cost of the plant would be EUR37.5 million. The new plantÃ¢â¬â¢s expected after-tax cash flows would total EUR35.6 million and IRR of 11.3% over 10 years. Proposal three suggests that the plant that is in Nuremberg, Germany be expanded. It would cost a total of EUR15 million. Expanding this facility would increase capacity to an expected EUR2.25 million a year in additional production. Proposal four suggests that the company roll-out a new product of snack foods. The company has excess capacity that it could use to produce dried fruits and enter a new market. The IRR was expected to be 13.4% and the project would be able to support more expansions. Proposal five suggested to increase automation of the production lines at six of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s already existing plants. This proposal would reduce injuries amongst employees and reduce lawsuits from injuredShow MoreRelatedThe Potential Benefits Of Cloning1068 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesbeen one of the most widely discussed and controversial scientific topics in the past decade. Cloning has been applied in many fields including the creation of new breeds of plants and animals. However, the cloning of plants has been practiced for hundreds of years. Cloning can be done on a larger level in animals and has potential benefits. 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As noted in the case, fixed overhead includes depreciation, utilities, salaries, and fringe benefit costs of employees, whereas variable costs consist of first-line supervisorsÃ¢â¬â¢ wages, costs of set-up labor, scrap and rework costs, and fringe benefit costs for all direct and variableRead MoreEssay Food Products and Biotechnology1636 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesFood Products and Biotechnology INTRODUCTION This paper is about Biotechnology and its use in creating new food products. In researching this paper, I found there is a lot of information on this subject and a lot of debate on the creation of genetically altered food, medicine, crops, and more. I decided to do my paper on the genetically altered food part of the subject. I will discuss what biotechnology is, who is for it and who is against it, and what some of the ethical concerns are whenRead MoreBiotechnology : Genetically Modified Organisms959 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesare genetically modified organisms. Genetic engineering is when a person directly engineers or manipulates the DNA. (1) Biotechnology offers many health benefits and perhaps some risks. Biotechnology can help by increasing food production through helping plants become less vulnerable to insects, drought, frost and viruses and by enabling plants to become competitive against weeds for soil nutrients. Some dwarf wheat has increased yields by three times in Mexico, compared to traditional varietiesRead MoreCoca Production Of Coca Plant1481 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesCoca: the Fight to Survive The Coca plant has been cultivated in the Bolivian Andes since at least the time of the Inca Empire. Its cultivation expanded in the 1980s feeding into the international cocaine market. In response to U.S.-funded attempts to eradicate and fumigate coca crops in the Chapare region of Bolivia, the indigenous organizations that grow the plant joined together to contest the government in what is known as the cocalero movement. 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Communication Challenges in Building Successful Global Virtual Teams Due to Diversity and Cultural Differences Abstract This paper introduces an approach to effectively communicate within a global virtual team by discussing the challenges faced by them, understanding cultural differences in communicating, diversity within a team, building trust in virtual communication, and communicating across different regions and time zones. This approach appears in many discussions surrounding the difficulties managers and team members have in communicating effectively in global virtual teams.Specifically, this paper evaluates how the diversity of a global virtual team makes it challenging to communicate when members are not present face to face and adhering to the different regions and time zones these members are located. It will also examine the challenges in understanding the different cultures amongst a team and how to effectively build trust by researching, acknowledging, and understanding these cultural differences and communicating them to the team in a virtual environment. Communicating Challenges in Building Successful Global Virtual Teams Due to Diversity and Cultural Differences In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s economy, many organizations must expand their operations globally in order to remain competitive and to stay afloat. With this business model companies have to develop teams across all functions of the organization and in all regions of the globe in which the company operates. For these companies, many have set up global virtual teams to manage processes and implement any projects or company initiatives with other employees of the organization.However with these teams come many obstacles and challenges definitely in communicating across cultural differences, understanding the diversity of the team and communication management within the different regions and time zones. Various authors (Danielle, 2006; Kayworth, 2000; Lee-Kelley, 2008 to name a few) have noted that these groups consisting of dispersed members across the globe and accumulated from various cultural backgrounds have an impact on how effective global virtual teams can be.Kayworth determines that there are four main challenges that global virtual teams face; which are communication, culture, technology, and project management. This pap er observes the difficulties that virtual teams face within their communication efforts, analyzing the diversity of team members and the obstacles of communicating across different regions and times zones.As well as it takes an extensive look at the cultural differences that consists of these virtual teams and the challenge of building trust amongst a dispersed group. And in order for a global virtual team to operate effectively, managers and the members must research the different cultural backgrounds of its members, understand the communication challenges they face, and utilize them accordingly in order to build trust amongst the team to fulfill their goals that they place ahead of them. Defining Global Virtual TeamsThere are many authors that have provided definitions of global virtual teams, Lee-Kelley (2008) mentions that Towsend along with Lipnack and Stamps define a virtual team as a group that is geographically dispersed and utilize telecommunication and information technology as forms to communicate and perform. Lee-Kelley also refers to Alge, Balosky, Christensen, and DavisÃ¢â¬â¢ definition that virtual teams are typically a group that are dispersed who use various sources of information technology to communicate.In the case of these definitions, there is a lack of emphasis on the concept of team, but further definitions tie in this c oncept and place more value on the aspect of team. CascioÃ¢â¬â¢s and ShurygailoÃ¢â¬â¢s mentioning of multiple-relationships in global virtual teams, by referring to the number of managerÃ¢â¬â¢s involved, number of team members, and number of locations. Many researchers in this field do not reference a specified distance in which team members must be apart to classify as virtual team, but as Lee-Kelley stated it is a psychological reality versus sociological that team members conceptually define themselves in a virtual team.In sum, there are many definitions that agree on the structure, form and characteristics of a virtual team and the members it consist of, but there is a lack of consensus amongst them. This lack of consensus on the definition of a global virtual team has also brought up the discussions of the challenges in communication that these virtual teams face, thus prompting this research. Time Zones and Work Schedules One of the initial challenges of global virtual teams is the complicated work schedules of its team members in their respective regions.Settle-Murphy (2006) notes when working in a synchronous mode (Instant Message, telephone, video conference), some remote team members are forced to work at awkward times. This alone is one the most consistent challenges that managers and teams have to overcome. When is the optimal time for virtual teams that span across various time zones to meet? A manager and its team have to take in consideration the different work weeks as well as the time difference.Consistently in many western civilizations, the standard work week is predominately Monday through Friday, utilizing Saturday and Sunday as business days off in order to ten d to personal matters and observance of the religious day that is most affluent in that region and culture. Where in many eastern civilizations the work week is Sunday through Thursday, and they utilize Friday and Saturday as their days off. This difference is not only restricted to western/eastern civilization, but ultimately applies to the different cultures that make up the team, the different religions, and time of year.Being cognitive of this challenge and addressing it in an applicable manner is crucial to the effectiveness of a global virtual team. It is an evident obstacle in scheduling team meetings via information technology applications (i. e. teleconferencing, video-conferencing, etc). This is one challenge that can easily be addressed by the managerÃ¢â¬â¢s and teamÃ¢â¬â¢s awareness of these work week schedule differences along with the cultural and religious difference of its team members. Another issue that global virtual teams encounter is conducting meetings across the various time zones of its members. There is no exact corporate standard or guidelines on how and when meetings should be conducted in order to accommodate all members of the virtual team. Settle-Murphy states that in order to reduce this challenge as an obstacle to building trust and team success, a team should agree when same time meetings are necessary, and consider rotating the times to share the burden of working during normal sleep time. The managers and team members should also consider which work can be done asynchronously (e. g. via email or a shared workplace) to allow all team members to work at the most convenient times.This approach can be highly effective because it is apparent that the manager and other team members have taken into consideration each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s differences of location, culture, and business practices, and simultaneously addressing the challenge of building trust. By researching, understanding, and being respectful of the team members and their time, the cohesiveness of the group is e stablished quickly and strengthened, which is also a challenge to overcome in global virtual teams. Communication and Behavioral DifferencesIn the article Ã¢â¬Å"Working Together Apart,Ã¢â¬ Zakaria, Almelinckx, and Wilemon (2004) state that, Ã¢â¬Å"managers have often under-valued the profound influence of culture on knowledge conceptualization and transfer. Suggesting that knowledge sharing is often facilitated by communication that involves the exchange of meaning and that the process of communicating is dynamic, multifaceted and complexÃ¢â¬ (p. 17). Zakaria et al. , also suggest that cultural conditioning has a major affect on the evaluation of experience as well as how information and knowledge in global virtual teams is conveyed and learned.In short, cultural influences play a major role in communication and behavioral differences. This concept is another major challenge that global virtual teams face when striving to reach their end goal. Conveying a clear message is only one challenge, the difficult part is conveying that message so that it reaches each individual affectively according to their unique cultural and behavioral background and how to convey organizational messages across global virtual teams has consensually been done through technology.Global virtual teams that use information and communication technologies and exclude social or physical presence and rely on depersonalized forms of communications between its team members (Zakaria et al. ,2007). One can argue that this hinders the creation of a knowledge-sharing culture, yet over time, the exclusion of social and physical presence can possibly strengthen working relationships that normally would not form in a more traditional work setting. Utilizing technology as the form of communication takes out a lot of subtle communication aspects that are experienced when working within a team in a more traditional framework.An example of this is the use of non-ve rbal communication or cues. The absence of non-verbal communication may cause difficulties for those global virtual team membersÃ¢â¬â¢ cultures that rely on body language, gestures and facial expressions for vital communication. For example, in high-context cultures, people value these subtle and indirect communications. Visual communication like a nod, smile, posture, voice and eye contact provide important indications and meanings to establish understanding of what is trying to be communicated. The usage of verbal and non-verbal communication is important when working together in a team.Global virtual teams usually lack the ability to rely on these communication manners because of their reliability on technology in order to communicate and therefore it is difficult to build cohesiveness and trust within the team. Zakaria et al. , states that: Ã¢â¬Å"Technology is simply a tool that needs human operations, no matter how sophisticated the technology can be, the implementation of technology has the potential to fail if insufficient considerations are given from the user perspectivesÃ¢â¬ (p. 19). This brings up the topic of what is appropriate and what is not when communicating to and within global virtual teams.In the majority of information and communicated technology-mediated environments where team members are dispersed geographically and are culturally diverse, the usual form of communication is electronically, and the preferred language of use is English. Studies have shown that native and non-native English speakers exhibit culture-based differences in meanings of terminology, structure and format. A key example of this is the usage of terms and slang. When members use terms and slang words, the intended meaning can be obscured due to cultural differences and can hinder knowledge management and effectiveness.Another area for potential conflict in information communication is the actual language itself. For those teams that use English, individuals need to be aware of the English language variation in intra-team electronic communication. This particularly pertains to the tone, style, formality, salutations and closings and that they need to be aware that there are substantial sociolinguistic and grammatical variations within the global English-speaking community and will have a significant impact on intra-team communications.In order to successfully facilitate the cross-cultural collaboration and communication, the team members must be aware of these subtle differences and acknowledge them when relaying organizational messages. Since the use of electronic communication technology has the capacity to reduce or overcome certain cultural challenges within a global virtual team, these forms of technologies can facilitate intra-team interaction. It also introduces a shared-framework, a virtual work setting that can build intra-team respect, trust, reciprocity and positive individual and group relationships.Therefore, understanding the communication and behavioral differences when communicating electronically to the team members can put the team in the position to work through the challenges that lie within a global virtual team. The Importance of Developing Trust For global virtual teams, building trust is one of the essential factors in developing a successful team. Since global virtual teams consist of many cultures that make up the entity as well as a geographically dispersed entity, there is a high risk of potential misunderstandings and mistrust. So the question that many virtual teams face is how to develop trust. Many researchers contend that in order to develop trust, a group must facilitate face to face interactions in order to build trust. These face to face interactions allow people to relate to each other or Ã¢â¬Å"clickÃ¢â¬ as many of the new generation say. However, this may not have enough grounds to develop strong trust within a team if the members do not understand each other and/or the nature of the team itself.As Roberts observed, Ã¢â¬Å"the development of trust, whether on a local or international basis, requires more than face to face contact or its technological and spatially indifferent substitute video-conferencing ellipses, trust depends on the sharing of a set of socially embedded values, cultural institutions and expectationsÃ¢â¬ (Roberts, 2000, p. 6). In order for global virtual teams to be effective, there must be intra-group trust as well as trust between management and team members and vice ver sa. Jarvenpaa, S. L. , and Leidner, D. E. 1999) infer that virtual teams have no time to gradually develop trust and therefore require a high degree of Ã¢â¬Å"swift trustÃ¢â¬ to be demonstrated by enthusiastic and proactive team membersÃ¢â¬â¢ behaviors. So how do cross-cultural members form swift trust? Jarvenpaa and Leidner suggest that the virtual team members would import the expectations of trust from other settings that they are familiar with. It is also important to note that if an individual team memberÃ¢â¬â¢s cultural stereotypes are flawed, biased or incomplete, this technique may be problematic. Once communication is developed between members, trust could be maintained by actions that are highly dynamic, proactive and enthusiastic. Such active communication must be premised on accurate cultural knowledge to be effective. Therefore swift trust is made possible because when cross-cultural teams work in a virtual environment, they bring their knowledge, competence and expertise not only to meet the goals that are set but also about the other team membersÃ¢â¬â¢ and their cultures in order to ensure the success of the team.Not only is this necessary for the members of the team but it also necessary for the leaders of the team to establish this swift trust. As noted from Zakaria and Leidner, there are two behavioral categories that form cross-cultural trust. First, credibility where one individual believes that the other individual has the capabilities, competence, expertise and resources to make a successful exchange that meets expectations. Note that when working in cross-cult ural teams, the work expectation of a person in culture A is different from the expectations of a person in culture B. This can be challenging in implementing swift trust in global virtual teams, but it can be overcome if the expectations are set by the managers or leaders and are clearly communicated to all team members. The second factor that Zakaria and Leidner discuss is benevolence, the beliefs about the emotional aspects of the referentÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior like positive intention to exchange. These beliefs include a referentÃ¢â¬â¢s good will so that they would participate in the better good of the team rather than jeopardize the exchange outcome. This may result in some challenges to the team because swift trust does not focus a lot on interpersonal relationships.Rather it places more emphasis on the initial broad social structures. Therefore in order for swift trust to be implemented successfully, team members must maintain a high level of actions, regardless of their cultural preferences and differences. But team members should also appreciate, understand and respect the cultural differences that make up the team in order to truly succeed in a global virtual team. Conclusion Through research of many articles and publishingÃ¢â¬â¢s regarding the topic of communication in global virtual, building trust has been the one subject that has been consistently addressed. Mockaitis, A. I. , Rose, E. L. nd Zetting, P. (2009) suggest that the development of trust in the context of multicultural global virtual teams is related to aspects of culture, conflict, task interdependence and communication. A team whose members are more collective in nature rather than distant tend to report more positive results of developing trust within the group, this implies that culture matters. It is important for all team members to understand and respect the cultures of the other individuals. Although team membersÃ¢â¬â¢ personal cultural values have consistent predictive power it is suggested that it displays very little value in developing trust within the group.Initially since communication amongst the team is done virtually and not face to face, it is important to establish trust among the group. But as the team develops the factors for cultural differences and diversity tend to become less important to the success of the group. The findings of Mockaitis et al. , show that cultural diversity does not appear to serve as a barrier to trust, even as differences become apparent through communication, but it can play a crucial role in developing that trust. Therefore along with cultural differences, communication is extremely important for the development of trust within a global virtual team.
Thursday, April 23, 2020
Washington vs Roosevelt view on foreign policy I think that george washington had a better view than teddy roosevelt on foreign policy. because george washington wanted to improve agriculture and trade within their own country. while Roosevelt got involved with other countries. Washington supported Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton's Federalist financial plans, including a national bank and a tax on whiskey. The latter led to a minor revolt in Pennsylvania, the Whiskey Rebellion, and Washington mobilized troops from neighboring states to quell the uprising. Washington appointed the first cabinet and persuaded Congress to give him authority to fire executive branch employees.When France and England began fighting again, the president chose to remain neutral even as fellow patriots pointedly reminded him of France's important contribution to the American War of Independence. Elsewhere, harassment by Barbary pirates persuaded Washington to build up an American navy. Within North America, agreements were made with Spain allowing American ships to navigate the Mississippi freely, allowing agricultural products grown around the Ohio River to reach the Atlantic port of New Orleans. Roosevelt drafted the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine stating that the U.S. would freely intervene in any nation in the Western Hemisphere guilty of "brutal wrongdoing." Roosevelt had long advocated the building of a Central American canal linking the Pacific to the Atlantic, and to this end he supported the independence of Panama from Colombia in 1903. Panama rapidly agreed to American terms on a canal zone lease, and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers began digging the following year. Roosevelt was also instrumental in brokering peace between Japan and Russia over the contested areas of Manchuria and Korea in 1905.
Tuesday, March 17, 2020
Biography of Andy Warhol, Icon of Pop Art Andy Warhol (born Andrew Warhola; Aug. 6, 1928Ã¢â¬âFeb. 22, 1987) was one of the most important artists of pop art, a genre that became popular in the second half of the 20th century. Though he is best remembered for his mass-produced paintings of Campbells soup cans, he created hundreds of other works ranging from commercial advertisements to films. His best-known work, including the soup cans, reflected his views on the banality that he saw in the commercial culture of America. Fast Facts; Andy Warhol Known For: Pop artAlso Known As: Andrew WarholaBorn: Aug. 6, 1928 in Pittsburgh, PennsylvaniaParents: Andrej and Julia WarholaDied: Feb. 22, 1987 in New York, New YorkEducation: Carnegie Institute of Technology (now Carnegie Mellon University)Published Works: Commercial illustrations, paintings, filmsÃ¯ » ¿Notable Quote: I just happen to like ordinary things. When I paint them, I dont try to make them extraordinary. I just try to paint them ordinary-ordinary. Early Life and Education Andy Warhol was born on Aug. 6, 1928, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and grew up there with his older brothers, Paul and John, and his parents, Andrej and Julia Warhola, both of whom had emigrated from Czechoslovakia (now called Slovakia). Devout Byzantine Catholics, the family regularly attended Mass and observed their Eastern European heritage. Even as a young boy, Warhol liked to draw, color, and cut and paste pictures. His mother, who was also artistic, encouraged him by giving him a chocolate bar every time he finished a page in his coloring book. Elementary school was traumatic for Warhol, especially once he contracted Sydenhams chorea, also known as St. Vitus dance, a disease that attacks the nervous system and makes the sufferer shake uncontrollably. Warhol missed a lot of school during several month-long periods of bed rest. Additionally, large, pink blotches on Warhols skin, also from the disorder, didnt help his self-esteem or acceptance by other students. This led to nicknames such as Ã¢â¬Å"SpotÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Andy the Red-Nosed WarholaÃ¢â¬ and a lifelong interest in clothing, wigs, cosmetics, and, later, plastic surgery in response to what he perceived as his flaws. During high school, Warhol took art classes there and at the Carnegie Institute (now the Carnegie Museum of Art). He was somewhat of an outcast because he was quiet, could always be found with a sketchbook in his hands, and had shockingly pale skin and white-blond hair. Warhol also loved to go to movies and started a collection of celebrity memorabilia, particularly autographed photos. A number of these pictures appeared in Warhols later artwork. Warhol graduated from high school and then went to the Carnegie Institute of Technology (now Carnegie Mellon University) in 1945, graduating in 1949 with a major in pictorial design. Blotted-Line Technique During college, Warhol developed the blotted-line technique, which involved taping two pieces of blank paper together at an edge and then drawing in ink on one page. Before the ink dried, he pressed the two pieces of paper together. The resulting image was a picture with irregular lines that he could fill in with watercolor. Warhol moved to New York right after college and worked there for a decade as a commercial illustrator. He quickly earned a reputation in the 1950s for using his blotted-line technique in commercial advertisements. Some of Warhols most famous ads were for shoes for I. Miller, but he also drew Christmas cards for Tiffany Co., created book and album covers, and illustrated Amy Vanderbilts Complete Book of Etiquette. Pop Art Around 1960, Warhol decided to make a name for himself in pop art, a new style of art that had begun in England in the mid-1950s and consisted of realistic renditions of popular, everyday items. Warhol had turned away from the blotted-line technique and had decided to use paint and canvas, but he was having trouble deciding what to paint. Warhol began with Coke bottles and comic strips, but his work wasnt getting the attention he wanted. In December 1961, a friend gave Warhol an idea: he should paint what he liked most in the world, perhaps something such as money or a can of soup. Warhol painted both. Warhols first exhibition in an art gallery came in 1962 at the Ferus Gallery in Los Angeles. He displayed his canvases of Campbells soup, one for each of the 32 types of soup made by the company. He sold all the paintings as a set for $1,000. Before long, Warhols work was known all over the world and he was in the vanguard of the new pop art movement. Silk-Screening Unfortunately for Warhol, he found that he couldnt make his paintings fast enough on canvas. In July 1962, he discovered the process of silk screening, which uses a specially prepared section of silk as a stencil, allowing one silk-screen image to create similar patterns multiple times. He immediately began making paintings of political and Hollywood celebrities, most notably a large collection of paintings of Marilyn Monroe. Warhol would use this style for the rest of his life. Mass production not only spread his art; it became his art form. Movies In the 1960s as Warhol continued to paint, he also made films, which were known for creative eroticism, lack of plots, and extreme length- up to 25 hours. From 1963 to 1968, he made nearly 60 movies. One of his movies, Sleep, is a five-and-a-half-hour film of a nude man sleeping. Ã¢â¬Å"We were shooting so many, we never even bothered to give titles to a lot of them,Ã¢â¬ Warhol later recalled. On July 3, 1968, disgruntled actress Valerie Solanas, one of the hangers-on at Warhols studio known as The Factory, shot him in the chest. Less than 30 minutes later, Warhol was pronounced clinically dead. The doctor then cut Warhols chest open and massaged his heart for a final effort to get it started again. It worked. Though his life was saved, it took a long time for him to recover. Warhol continued to paint during the 1970s and 1980s. He also began publishing a magazine called Interview and several books about himself and pop art. He even dabbled in television, producing two shows- Andy WarholÃ¢â¬â¢s TVÃ andÃ Andy WarholÃ¢â¬â¢s Fifteen Minutes,- for MTV and appearing onÃ The Love BoatÃ andÃ Saturday Night Live. Death On Feb. 21, 1987, Warhol underwent routine gallbladder surgery. Though the operation went well, Warhol unexpectedly passed away the following morning from complications. He was 58. Legacy WarholÃ¢â¬â¢s work is featured in an enormous collection at theÃ Andy Warhol Museum in Pittsburgh, which the website describes as one of the most comprehensive single-artist museums in the world and the largest in North America. It includes paintings, drawings, commercial illustrations, sculptures, prints, photographs, wallpapers, sketchbooks, and books covering WarholÃ¢â¬â¢s career, from his student work to pop art paintings and collaborations. In his will, the artist directed that his entire estate be used to create a foundation for the advancement of the visual arts. TheÃ Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts was established in 1987. Sources Andy Warhol: American Artist. Encyclopedia Britannica.Andy Warhols Life. Warhol.org.Ã¯ » ¿
Sunday, March 1, 2020
The Mousterian Middle Paleolithic Tool Industry The Mousterian industry is the name archaeologists have given to an ancient Middle Stone Age method of making stone tools. The Mousterian is associated with our hominid relatives the Neanderthals in Europe and Asia and both Early Modern Human and Neanderthals in Africa. Mousterian stone tools were in use between about 200,000 years ago, until roughly 30,000 years ago, after the Acheulean industry, and about the same time as the Fauresmith tradition in South Africa. Stone Tools of the Mousterian The Mousterian stone tool production type is considered a technological step forward consisting of a transition from Lower Paleolithic hand-held Acheulean hand axes to hafted tools. Hafted tools are stone points or blades mounted on wooden shafts and wielded as spears or perhaps bow and arrow. A typical Mousterian stone tool assemblage is primarily defined as a flake-based tool kit made using the Levallois technique, rather than later blade-based tools. In traditional archaeological terminology, flakes are variously shaped thin stone sheets knapped off a core, while blades are flakes which are at least twice as long as their widths.Ã The Mousterian Toolkit Part of the Mousterian assemblage is made up of Levallois tools such as points and cores. The tool kit varies from place to place and from time to time but in general, includes the following tools: Mousterian point/convergent scraper: short, broad triangular projectile points struck from prepared coresLevallois flakes with retouch: sub-oval, subquadrangular, triangular, or leaf-shaped flakes struck from cores, which may have been retouched, that is to say, a series of small purposeful flakes have been removed from the flake to create an edge which is either sharp for cutting or blunted to make it safe to holdLevallois blades: elongated oval or rectangular blanks removed from cores with basal preparation and correction of the core convexityLevallois cores: include two types, pebble and bipolar. Pebble cores are clasts or angular rock fragments from which a series of flakes have been detached by percussion; bipolar cores are those created by placing the clast on a hard surface and striking it from above with a hard percussor History The Mousterian tool kit was identified in the 20th century to solve chronostratigraphic problems in western European Middle Paleolithic stone tool assemblages. Middle Stone Age tools were first intensively mapped in theÃ LevantÃ where British archaeologist Dorothy Garrod identified the LevantineÃ faciesÃ at the site of Mugharet et-TabÃ ¼n or Tabun Cave in what is today Israel. The traditional Levantine process is defined below: Tabun D or Phase 1 Levantine (270 to 170 thousand years ago [ka]), laminar blanks from Levallois and non-Levallois unipolar andÃ bi-polarÃ cores, higher frequency of retouched piecesTabun C or Phase 2 Levantine (170 to 90Ã ka) oval or rectangular blanks from cores, Mousterian points, sideÃ scrapers, notches, and denticulatesTabun B or Phase 3 Levantine (90 to 48Ã ka), blanks from Levallois cores, Mousterian points, thin flakes and blades Since Garrods day, the Mousterian has been used as a point of departure to compare stone tools from Africa and southwest Asia. Recent Critiques However, United States archaeologist John Shea has suggested that the Mousterian category may have outlived its usefulness and may even be getting in the way of the ability for scholars to effectively study human behaviors. The Mousterian lithic technology was defined as a single entity in the early 20th century, and although during the first half of that century a range of scholars tried to subdivide it, they were largely unsuccessful. Shea (2014) points out that different regions have different percentages of the different tool types and the categories are not based on what scholars are interested in learning. Scholars would like to know, after all, what was the tool making strategy for different groups, and that is not readily available from the Mousterian technology in the way it is currently defined. Shea proposes that moving away from the traditional categories would open up paleolithic archaeology and enable it to address the central issues in paleoanthropology. A Few Mousterian Sites Levant Israel: Qafzeh, Skhul, Kebara, Hayonim, Tabun, Emeireh, Amud, Zuttiyeh, El-WadJordan: Ain DiflaSyria: El Kowm North Africa Morocco: Rhafas Cave, Dar es Soltan Central Asia Turkey: Kalatepe DeresiAfghanistan: Darra-i-KurUzbekistan: Teschik-Tasch Europe Gibraltar: Gorhams CaveFrance: Abric Romani, St. Cesaire, Grotte du NoistierSpain: LArbreda CaveSiberia: Denisova CaveUkraine: Moldova SitesCroatia: Vindija Cave Selected Sources Bar-Yosef O. 2008. ASIA, WEST: Palaeolithic Cultures. In: Pearsall DM, editor. Encyclopedia of Archaeology. New York: Academic Press. p 865-875.Close AE, and Minichillo T. 2007. Archaeological Records: Global Expansion 300,000-8000 years ago, Africa. In: Elias SA, editor. Encyclopedia of Quaternary Science. Oxford: Elsevier. p 99-107.Culley EV, Popescu G, and Clark GA. 2013. An analysis of the compositional integrity of the Levantine Mousterian facies. Quaternary International 300:213-233.Petraglia MD, and Dennell R. 2007. Archaeological Records: Global Expansion 300,000-8000 years ago, Asia. In: Elias SA, editor. Encyclopedia of Quaternary Science. Oxford: Elsevier. p 107-118.Shea JJ. 2013. Lithic Modes AÃ¢â¬âI: A New Framework for Describing Global-Scale Variation in Stone Tool Technology Illustrated with Evidence from the East Mediterranean Levant. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 20(1):151-186.Shea JJ. 2014. Sink the Mousterian? Named stone tool industries (NASTIES) as obstacles to investigating hominin evolutionary relationships in the Later Middle Paleolithic Levant. Quaternary International 350:169-179.
Thursday, February 13, 2020
The Role of Women as Patrons during the Renaissance - Essay Example The Renaissance humanists embraced Christianity and, therefore, the church was at the forefront in patronizing many artistic works of Renaissance (Conelli 2004). The Renaissance was largely marked by the return to classical ideas that brought about the age of awakening in Italy and northern Europe between 1400AD and 1600AD (Thomson 1984). During Renaissance, or born anew in French, artist were exploring new ideas and, this lead to a wide discovery of talent and innovation. During and before Renaissance, men ruled over everything from political to social. A woman at these times was supposed to get married, give birth to boys and stay loyal to her husband (Trager 1994). A Renaissance man was expected to be well educated in a way that he understood proficiently art and science and have cultural grace. Women of all classes were expected to perform the duties of a housewife, or work in the fields if they were peasantry women. For middle-class women, they helped run their husbands business es while women of the noble class engaged in sewing, cooking, and entertainment. However, since the explosion of art and architecture presented opportunities individualÃ¢â¬â¢s growth, there were wealthy women who broke the mold of subjugation and achieved fame and independence (Chambers 1970). Most of these women learned how to paint in their fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s workshops while women of the high class had the opportunity to learn the art and practice architecture. Against this background, this essay examines the role of women as patrons of art and architecture during the Renaissance. Artistic Patronage Patrons of art had a significant role in the development of art in the Renaissance Europe. Patrons were not only customers of art but were also initiators of the same, and they often dictated on the art form and content (Chambers 1970). In most cases, art patronage was carried out by wealthy families of status, and it acted as a show of power. Art patronage was relevant for religious pu rposes, entertainment and as a source of political propaganda. As a result, the influence of the art was essential to the wellbeing of any artist. Artistic patronage was a formal undertaking with contracts defining the cost materials and dimensions of the project (Chambers 1970). For architectural works, the sketch of the project and the timeline, as well as the content of the piece, was contained in the contact form. A Patron of art or architecture offered a lot of support that placed him or her beyond the position of a mere customer. Art patronage originated from religious practices as noted by Tuscan merchant Francesco di Marco Datini of the 14th century that pictures moved ones spirit to devotion (Ciletti 1984). Therefore, the intention of any patron to any painting or curving was to devote such an art for religious purposes. Most portraits, placed at altering for a chapel, were meant to earn grace for the patron in redeeming her souls from the torments of purgatory (Ciletti 198 4). This was the theme and the form that Medici family in the early Florence artistic and architectural patronage undertook. Moreover, patrons were portrayed in paintings of religious subjects like in the work of Jan Van EyckÃ¢â¬â¢s Madonna of the Canon van der Paele (Chambers 1970).